Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Volatile Compounds Evaluation of Egyptian Purslane Leaves

Document Type : Original Article


1 Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Home Economic, Al- Azhar University, Tanta, Egypt.

2 Department of Chemistry of Flavour and Aroma, National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Portulaca oleracea (PO) has several applications as vegetable and can be used in medicine and food industry. Therefore, the current study aimed to compare the phytochemical constituents, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in ethanol and aqueous extract of Egyptian purslane fresh leaves. Also, the fatty acids and volatile compounds in fresh leaves had been determined. Concentrations of saponin and alkaloid were the highest phytochemical present in both extracts of the purslane leaves. Percentage of tannins was highest in the ethanol extract of the leaves (3.15%) compared to aqueous extract (2.65%). Saponin level was highest in the ethanol extract (4.98%) compared to aqueous extract (4.58%) While, the ethanol extract was more effective in phytochemical including tannins and saponins; whereas both of the two extracts were nearly similar in the extract of phenolic and flavonoids. HPLC analysis showed that pyrogallol was the main phenolic compound in ethanol and aqueous extracts with concentration of 24.85 and 23.65%, respectively. On the other hand, the phenolic compounds in purslane water extract had high amount of pyrogallol, chlorogenic and salicylic flowed by, catechin, rosmarinic, vanillic and rutin The ethanolic extract of P. oleracea leaves exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner compared to BHA and TBHQ. Most abundant fatty acids in purslane leaves were; α-linolenic acid (51.72 %), palmitic acid (24.03 %) and linoleic acid (9.46 %). Concerning saturated fatty acids, the most predominant fatty acids was Plamitic C16:0 (24.03%) and the others have the lowest values such as Myristic (C14:0), Stearic (C18:0) and Lauric (C12:0) recorded 3.56, 2.19 and 0.92% respectively. A total of Twenty-seven compounds were identified using GC and GC-MS in the extracts of P. oleracea. The main volatile constituents of Headspace (HS) were: (E)-2-Hexenal (15.64%), (E)-2-Nonenol (12.03%), Hexanal (10.92%), and Ethyl linoleate (8.02%). On the other hand, the main volatile compounds obtained by water distillation (WD) were; (E)-2-Hexenal (12.46%), (E)-2-Nonenol (9.52%), Hexanal (9.32%), and Menthol (8.04%). Portulaca oleracea plant extract could be used as a source of phytochemical and antioxidants, especially for functional food.