Effect of Total Mixed Rations Versus Traditional Feeding of Concentrate and Roughage Rations on Dairy Cattle Performance in Sudan

Document Type : Original Article


1 Alzaem Alazhari University,Khartoum-North ,Sudan

2 Alzaem Alazhari University, Khartoum-North, Sudan


Dairy cattle in Sudan are traditionally fed on separate concentrate and roughage diets. Because of the high cost of forages, feeding strategies should be attempted to reduce feeding costs. A traditional dairy ration (As-fed), composed of 49% sorghum grains (SG), 29.4% groundnut seed cake (GSC), 19.6% wheat bran (WB), 1% limestone (LS) and 1% salt (NaCl), was used as a control. The test ration was a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of 40% SG, 23% groundnut seed hulls (GSH), 20% GSC, 15% WB, 1% LS and 1 % NaCl. The control traditional ration was fed at 10 Kg/cow/day together with 7 Kg sorghum chaff. Two levels of TMR were used with alfalfa hay (AH); (17 Kg TMR + 1 Kg   AH/cow/day and 15 Kg TMR + 2 Kg AH. Three cross-bred dairy cows (European x Local) were used with the feeding regimes in a 3x3 Latin square design.  Cows consumed similar amounts of DM, CP and ME and produced similar quantities of milk (P > 0.05).  TMR had no effects (P > 0.05) on the composition of milk. The cost for TMR was decreased by 19%.TMR was thus effective in reducing feeding costs without affecting milk production and composition.