Phylogenetic Evolution of Egyptian Goat Breeds “Capra Hircus” Based on Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Sequence

Document Type : Original Article


1 Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University. Cairo, Egypt

2 Sheep and Goats Department.The Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt


The population genetic and molecular evidence of the Arabian goat breed's phylogenetic standing (Capra hircus) is misunderstood, and little is known about genetic diversity in this species. Despite their importance in producing meat and milk, as well as their capacity to endure difficult conditions with little access to food and water, goats are the most common animal in Arab countries. We investigated the phylogenetic history and demographics of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment of the mtDNA reference region for Baladi, Demuscous, and Zaraibi breeds, as well as sequences retrieved from 16 Arab countries. Three significantly divergent lineages associated with Africa and the Middle East were identified through phylogenetic analysis of the investigated strains of Egyptian goats' mtDNA D-loop region. All Egyptian goats were allocated to lineage A, which is made up of 445 different haplotypes, including Egyptian and Arabian goats. Diversity in haplotypes and in nucleotides for each Arabian goat population was calculated separately and estimated to be 0.99835 and 0.02576, respectively. Finally, we suggest that all goat lineages descend from a single clan. The ancient world's migration and travel may have influenced goat diversity, implying that goats had multiple matrilineal forebears